This article is the second of a two-part series that reviews key development during the past year in Central Asia. This article focuses on Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. Click here for part one.
Kazakhstan faced continuing problems with the refusal of major international oil companies to build the necessary oil and gas pipelines to expand Kazakhstan's export of energy. As a result, President Nursultan Nazarbayev guided the country closer to Russia. He continued to rule with an authoritarian stamp, leading to increased political opposition to his regime, and public charges of large scale corruption by his family. During the summer, parliament was
Ahmed Rashid is a journalist and author of the book "Taliban: Militant Islam and Fundamentalism in Central Asia."