With the fall of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyzstan earned independence but lost countless sources of employment, as factories and other employers shuttered in quick succession.
The government points to regular economic growth, and yet on the ground, evidence of such growth is thin. Hundreds of thousands have left for Russia to find menial, low-skilled jobs.
Many who remain in Kyrgyzstan work for salaries so low that it is often necessary for them to get second, and even third, jobs in order to pay the bills.
In this photo essay, created over the duration of 2016, Danil Usmanov, a photographer based in Bishkek, documents the travails of night-shift workers: miners, police officers, rag-and-bone men, and sex workers.
Danil Usmanov is a photo and video journalist based in Bishkek.
Sign up for Eurasianet's free weekly newsletter.