Over 3,000 soldiers from Kazakhstan and Russia are taking part in joint military exercises in eastern Kazakhstan. The exercises, called "Shygys-2011" ("East" in Kazakh), started June 20 and last until the end of the month. The focus seems to be on air force cooperation, in particular in repelling an air invasion. There is an intriguing explanation of the scenario by the chairman of the joint chief of staff of Kazakhstan, Saken Zhassuzakov:
For the first time, we have been working on repelling cruise missiles. We did not have such missions before. It is topical because the analysis made for the latest events happening in the world shows that the first strikes are the ones with cruise missiles, which can be fired from the range of one and a half, two and three thousand miles, and almost without the use of an aircraft.
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