What Is to Be Done About the ‘Russian Question?’

(A Soviet-era caricature)

The October Revolution of 1917 was not a singular event, but five years of violent political upheaval and social radicalization, culminating with the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922. It set the empire’s many peoples on the path to modern nationhood.

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Igor Torbakov is Senior Fellow at Uppsala University and at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs in Stockholm, Sweden.

What Is to Be Done About the ‘Russian Question?’

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