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Germany Details Military Exports, And Denials, To Post-Soviet States

The German government released its annual report on the country's arms sales around the world, and what made headlines was the fact that defense exports jumped 38 percent from 2012 to 2013. But in the Caucasus and Central Asia, Germany regularly denied export licenses on grounds of poor human rights records, ongoing conflicts, and the possibility of the equipment being resold to third countries. The report (pdf, in German) specifies the criteria under European Union policy regarding arms exports.

Kazakhstan, for example, was denied exports worth 160,000 Euros under EU criteria having to do with "Respect for human rights in the country of final destination as well as respect by that country of international humanitarian law," "Internal situation in the country of final destination, as a function of the existence of tensions or armed conflicts," and "Existence of a risk that the military technology or equipment will be diverted within the buyer country or re-exported under undesirable conditions." Unfortunately the report doesn't specify what equipment was requested but denied (and in this case, doesn't explain what "tensions or armed conflicts" are going on in Kazakhstan).

Kyrgyzstan was denied four licenses totaling 12,000 Euros under the criteria of "Respect for human rights in the country of final destination as well as respect by that country of international humanitarian law" and "Internal situation in the country of final destination, as a function of the existence of tensions or armed conflicts."

Azerbaijan was denied two licenses worth 138,000 Euros under the criterion of "Respect for the international obligations and commitments of Member States, in particular the sanctions adopted by the UN Security Council or the European Union, agreements on non-proliferation and other subjects, as well as other international obligations." (This presumably refers to OSCE arms embargoes against the country.)

Georgia was denied a 17,000 Euro purchase under the criteria relating to "Internal situation in the country of final destination, as a function of the existence of tensions or armed conflicts" and "Preservation of regional peace, security and stability." That general criterion includes various subclauses; the one "the existence or likelihood of armed conflict between the recipient and another country" would seem to obtain in Georgia's case.

The same criterion was used to deny Tajikistan two licenses worth 32,000 Euros; in Tajikistan the relevant subclause would seem to be related to "the likelihood of the military technology or equipment being used other than for the legitimate national security and defence of the recipient."

Turkmenistan was denied a 2,000 Euro deal under the criteria of human rights and re-export.

Meanwhile, Russia was denied six licenses totaling 612,978 Euros under every criteria named above.

But these compunctions didn't prevent Germany from selling some goods to these countries, though they were generally dual-use like satellite technology or patrol vehicles. (The deals that went through have a little more detail, at least listing a category of the equipment in question.) Kazakhstan, for example, got 8 million Euros of equipment including thermal imaging equipment, hunting rifles, parts for electronic countermeasures, and rocket fuel. Azerbaijan bought 355,000 Euros worth of "SUVs with special protection [government vehicle]" and "parts for a tunnel boring machine" (according to google translate).

And Tajikistan got 575,000 Euros of "parts for mining equipment" and "SUVs with special protection [embassy]." The latter would seem to be over and above the reported 200 German luxury cars that German officials say were stolen and are being used by government members and their families in Dushanbe.

Germany Details Military Exports, And Denials, To Post-Soviet States

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